Education Theory - UCD - CTAG
and practice in educational psychology, , , DOI: / was a founder member of the Association of Educational Psychologists. Thus, there is a strong interrelationship between theory and research, It is easier to manipulate variables in the psychology lab or educational clinic than it is in. Theories and Research in the Field of Education: An Indissoluble Union. I would like to end with a quote about the mutual relation- ship between theory .. sociology, psychology, education and political science: qualita- tive work is here .
The kind of theory that is its concern either in terms of 'products' or 'frameworks' is not that which is appropriate to education, particularly adult education. The conception I am putting forward is that of theory and practice informing and enriching each other. The key is 'reflective awareness' which emerges out of this interaction and is the framework which guides and structures practice.
As we have seen, this 'reflective awareness' needs 'working on', it needs to be refined and improved - that I believe is our main task as teachers and curriculum designers. Now to do this we need to go beyond practice and practice-based theory. It would be foolish to ignore the 'formal' theory contained in foundation disciplines since we need this as resource or 'sounding-board' for the improvement and refinement of practice-based theory.
On the other hand, we have to recognise that formal theories can be differentiated and that some have a greater affinity and paradigmatic force for practice based theory than others.
As an example of this, I would instance the kinds of theory usually associated with psychotherapy. I recognise that there is an apparent contradiction here. Having rejected the theories of scientific psychology on the grounds that they are inappropriate to a practical activity such as education one would seem to be substituting theories which appear to be equally inappropriate.
The point is, however, that the inappropriateness is more apparent than real given that the overlap between education and therapy is now widely accepted. The best known example of this is, of course, Rogers4 who has written extensively on education, and considers himself to be both an educator and a therapist.
Understanding the Relationship between Research and Teaching - NCTE
He clearly sees certain kinds of education as having such in common with therapy. But he is by no means alone in this. Freud, for example, likened the analyst to the educator in the sense that both sought to stimulate insight, awareness and understanding. Stevens5 sees psychoanalytic therapy as akin to educational practice, since both are concerned with elucidating meaning. Lacan6 has stressed the interpretative role of analysis in its concern with insight and the surfacing of the unconscious rather than cure.
With personal construct theory Kelly7 has produced a theory which although originally based in therapy has, nonetheless, through its emphasis on the individual's construction of meaning and knowledge provided important insights for education. Of course, it could be said that therapeutic theories tell us nothing of value for education because they are about curing people with mental problems.
I'm not entirely sure about this - I suspect that this point of view is based on a misleading medical model. Even so, however, therapy is not essentially about the curing of mental disease but is about helping people become more aware of themselves. By so doing, people might also resolve their mental problems but the essential point is that there is more to therapy than effecting cure.
It is this 'more' which makes therapy-derived theories relevant to education. Unlike the theories of scientific psychology, these are prescriptive, value-laden, normative and action-oriented. As I pointed out earlier this, too, is the nature of education.
They are about the whole person not just a particular aspect of the person. They are idiographic rather than nomothetic. Their approach is hermeneutic, i.
They recognise the existence of human consciousness and therefore the reflexive character of their theories. Like education, the end-point is a kind of person rather than the 'cognition' or 'behaviour' of scientific psychology. Now I am not suggesting that we should convert our courses into psychoanalytic or Rogerian training sessions; nor am I suggesting that the theoretical 'products' of scientific psychology should be totally discarded.
It may be that it is important to know these things for their own sake, or because it helps sharpen up the critical faculties or a whole variety of other reasons. Equally, there is a place for the teaching of the 'frameworks' of scientific psychology, for example behaviourism, if only because they are so prevalent and deep-seated and affect practice albeit in an often unrecognised way. What I am suggesting is that if our courses are designed to help teachers 'grapple with' and resolve the problems of practice and if to do that they need to refine their practice-based theory, then therapy-derived theories, given their nature, can help achieve this.
Some other educational topics they spoke about were the effects of music, poetry, and the other arts on the development of individual, role of teacher, and the relations between teacher and student.
Such a statement has evolved into a continuing argument of nature vs.
Aristotle observed the phenomenon of "association. His studies examined recall and facilitated learning processes. Locke was called "Father of English Psychology".
In this essay, he introduced the term "tabula rasa" meaning "blank slate. Locke believed the mind was formed by experiences, not innate ideas. Locke introduced this idea as "empiricism," or the understanding that knowledge is only built on knowledge and experience. In the late s, John Locke advanced the hypothesis that people learn primarily from external forces.
He believed that the mind was like a blank tablet tabula rasaand that successions of simple impressions give rise to complex ideas through association and reflection. Locke is credited with establishing " empiricism " as a criterion for testing the validity of knowledge, thus providing a conceptual framework for later development of experimental methodology in the natural and social sciences. Juan Vives[ edit ] Juan Vives — proposed induction as the method of study and believed in the direct observation and investigation of the study of nature.
His studies focus of humanistic learningwhich opposed scholasticism and was influenced by a variety of sources including philosophypsychologypoliticsreligionand history. In this publication, Vives explores moral philosophy as a setting for his educational ideals; with this, he explains that the different parts of the soul similar to that of Aristotle's ideas are each responsible for different operations, which function distinctively. The first book covers the different "souls": The second book involves functions of the rational soul: Lastly, the third book explains the analysis of emotions.
Eventually, this experience with early education would lead to a "wholesome person characterized by morality. In his later years, he published teaching manuals and methods of teaching. Horlacher describes the most prominent example of this during The Enlightenment to be "improving agricultural production methods.
- Educational research
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- Educational psychology
The 5 steps that teachers should use are: Review material that has already been learned by the student  Prepare the student for new material by giving them an overview of what they are learning next  Present the new material. Stanley Hall, and John Dewey. These three men distinguished themselves in general psychology and educational psychology, which overlapped significantly at the end of the 19th century. From to 37 million people immigrated to the United States.
The increase in immigration also provided educational psychologists the opportunity to use intelligence testing to screen immigrants at Ellis Island. The pioneering American psychologist William James commented that: Psychology is a science, and teaching is an art; and sciences never generate arts directly out of themselves.
An intermediate inventive mind must make that application, by using its originality". In his famous series of lectures Talks to Teachers on Psychology, published inJames defines education as "the organization of acquired habits of conduct and tendencies to behavior".
Teachers should also realize the importance of habit and instinct. They should present information that is clear and interesting and relate this new information and material to things the student already knows about. Alfred Binet[ edit ] Alfred Binet published Mental Fatigue inin which he attempted to apply the experimental method to educational psychology.
In he was appointed the Minister of Public Education. In Lewis Terman revised the Binet-Simon so that the average score was always Terman, unlike Binet, was interested in using intelligence test to identify gifted children who had high intelligence.
He based teaching practices on empirical evidence and measurement. The law of effect states that associations are strengthened when it is followed by something pleasing and associations are weakened when followed by something not pleasing.The Role of Theory in Research
He also found that learning is done a little at a time or in increments, learning is an automatic process and all the principles of learning apply to all mammals. Thorndike's research with Robert Woodworth on the theory of transfer found that learning one subject will only influence your ability to learn another subject if the subjects are similar. He made all the problems more realistic and relevant to what was being studied, not just to improve the general intelligence.
If, by a miracle of mechanical ingenuity, a book could be so arranged that only to him who had done what was directed on page one would page two become visible, and so on, much that now requires personal instruction could be managed by print. He believed that the classroom should prepare children to be good citizens and facilitate creative intelligence. For Dewey, education was a social experience that helped bring together generations of people. He stated that students learn by doing.
Thus, there is a strong interrelationship between theory and research, as illustrated by the double headed arrow between those two circles in Figure 1. Considerable research is conducted in laboratory settings where researchers can exert control over the variables that they want to study. It is easier to manipulate variables in the psychology lab or educational clinic than it is in the classroom. However, it is critical that theories be tested in the classroom to see whether or not they work.
Theory and research, then, serve as the foundation for classroom practices. In return, the results of research conducted in labs and in classrooms can have an impact on the development and revision of theories of learning and instruction.
Those relationships are illustrated by the double headed arrows linking the practice circle with the theory and research circles in Figure 1. There is a theory that students progress through a series of stages when they learn: She selects tutorial software for her students who are in the acquisition stage of learning.
She uses drill and practice software in the proficiency stage. Educational games are used as her students move into the generalization stage. She applies testing software in the maintenance stage; and problem solving software is used in the application stage.
She also develops stronger faith in the validity of the theory and is more likely to apply it again when teaching math and the other subjects that she teaches. Additionally, the application of theory can reduce the possibility of making incorrect instructional decisions.