First Barons' War - Wikipedia
So although the Tang dynasty saw so many amazing inventions, they China's equivalent of the pesky barons who had stood over King John and forced him to. The people of Tang-king, who have borrowed their literature, have also borrowed the Dampier's Voyages, i.; Marini Relation de Tonquin; Baron's Account in. Items 1 - 15 in the presence of the notary [Andrew (son of) William de Tang] and the witnesses recorded below called especially, lord John, king of Scotland.
In the meantime Louis's occupation of Kent was being undermined by a guerrilla force of Wealden archers raised and led by William of Cassingham.
King John and Magna Carta
After three months spent besieging the castle, and with a large part of his forces diverted by the siege, Louis called a truce on 14 October and soon after returned to London. Sieges of Windsor and Rochester[ edit ] Apart from Dover, the only castle to hold out against Louis was that at Windsorwhere 60 loyalist knights survived a two-month siege, despite severe damage to the structure of its lower ward immediately repaired in by Henry III, who further strengthened the defences with the construction of the western curtain wall, much of which survives today.
This is possibly due to its having been already besieged by the barons inless than 30 years earlier. The rebel barons had then sent troops under William d'Aubigny to the castle, to whom its constable Reginald de Cornhill opened the castle's gates. Thus, during October on his marching from Dover to London, John found Rochester in his way and on 11 October began besieging it in person. The rebels were expecting reinforcements from London but John sent fire ships out to burn their route in, the city's bridge over the Medway.
Robert Fitzwalter rode out to stop the king, fighting his way onto the bridge but eventually being beaten back into the castle. John also sacked the cathedraltook anything of value and stabled his horses in it, all as a slight to Langton.
Orders were then sent to the men of Canterbury. Five siege engines were then erected and work carried out to undermine the curtain wall. By one of these means the king's forces entered and held the bailey in early November, and began attempting the same tactics against the keep, including undermining the south-east tower. The mine-roof was supported by wooden props, which were then set alight using pig-fat.
On 25 November John had sent a writ to the justiciars saying "Send to us with all speed by day and night, forty of the fattest pigs of the sort least good for eating so that we may bring fire beneath the castle". The rebels withdrew behind the keep's cross-wall but still managed to hold out. A few were allowed to leave the castle but on John's orders had their hands and feet lopped off as an example.
Winter was now setting in, and the castle was taken on 30 November by starvation and not by force. The remainder of the rebel barons were taken away and imprisoned at various royal-held castles, such as Corfe Castle.
The round tower centre and two square towers left and right of Rochester Castle. John died the next year, so it fell to Henry III to repair the castle. A new chapel was built next to the Royal apartments in the bailey.
The most notable surviving feature is the new south-east tower, which was built according to the latest defensive design and is three-quarters round to better deflect missile attack and work against attempts at undermining. Death of King John[ edit ] On 18 OctoberJohn contracted dysenterywhich would ultimately prove fatal.
Louis now seemed much more of a threat to baronial interests than John's nine-year-old son, Prince Henry.
While Eleanor of Brittanythe grown daughter of John's late elder brother Geoffreyimprisoned by John sinceposed another potential candidate for the crown, the barons passed her over just like their ignorance of her conditions when the Magna Carta was issued, leaving her still in prison. Pierre des RochesBishop of Winchesterand a number of barons rushed to have the young Henry be crowned as King of England.
London was held by Louis it was his seat of government and therefore could not be used for this coronation so, on 28 Octoberthey brought the boy from the castle at Devizes to Gloucester Abbey in front of a small attendance presided over by a Papal LegateGuala Bicchieri d.
They crowned Henry with a band of gold made from a necklace. Some of the traditional ties between parts of the empire such as Normandy and England were slowly dissolving over time.
Although the custom of primogenitureunder which an eldest son would inherit all his father's lands, was slowly becoming more widespread across Europe, it was less popular amongst the Norman kings of England. Henry had often allied himself with the Holy Roman Emperor against France, making the feudal relationship even more challenging.
Henry the Young King had been crowned King of England inbut was not given any formal powers by his father; he was also promised Normandy and Anjou as part of his future inheritance. Richard was to be appointed the Count of Poitou with control of Aquitaine, whilst Geoffrey was to become the Duke of Brittany. Growing irritated with his subordinate position to Henry II and increasingly worried that John might be given additional lands and castles at his expense,  Henry the Young King travelled to Paris and allied himself with Louis VII.
In he appropriated the estates of the late Earl of Cornwall and gave them to John. Richard was to be made King of England, albeit without any actual power until the death of his father; Geoffrey would retain Brittany; and John would now become the Duke of Aquitaine in place of Richard.
Ireland had only recently been conquered by Anglo-Norman forces, and tensions were still rife between Henry II, the new settlers and the existing inhabitants.
His elder brother Geoffrey died during a tournament inleaving a posthumous son, Arthur of Brittanyand an elder daughter, Eleanor.
BBC Bitesize - KS3 History - King John and Magna Carta - Revision 1
Longchamp refused to work with Puiset and became unpopular with the English nobility and clergy. John began to explore an alliance with the French king Philip IIfreshly returned from the crusade.King John Documentary on England's Bad King John Full Documentary
John hoped to acquire Normandy, Anjou and the other lands in France held by Richard in exchange for allying himself with Philip.
He agreed to set aside his wife, Isabella of Gloucester, and marry Philip's sister, Alysin exchange for Philip's support. John, whose claim rested on being the sole surviving son of Henry II, and young Arthur I of Brittany, who held a claim as the son of John's elder brother Geoffrey. Arthur was supported by the majority of the Breton, Maine and Anjou nobles and received the support of Philip II, who remained committed to breaking up the Angevin territories on the continent.
John and Philip negotiated the May Treaty of Le Goulet ; by this treaty, Philip recognised John as the rightful heir to Richard in respect to his French possessions, temporarily abandoning the wider claims of his client, Arthur. In order to remarry, John first needed to abandon Isabel, Countess of Gloucesterhis first wife; John accomplished this by arguing that he had failed to get the necessary papal permission to marry Isabel in the first place — as a cousin, John could not have legally wed her without this.
Contemporary chroniclers argued that John had fallen deeply in love with Isabella, and John may have been motivated by desire for an apparently beautiful, if rather young, girl. He argued that he need not attend Philip's court because of his special status as the Duke of Normandy, who was exempt by feudal tradition from being called to the French court.