Dominican Republic–United States relations - Wikipedia
Dominican Republic–United States relations are bilateral relations between the Dominican Republic and the United States of America. According to the U.S. Global Leadership Report, 57% of Dominicans An important element of the relationship between the two countries is the fact that more than 1 million. In addition to trade, U.S. interest in the Dominican Republic has .. The Dominican Republic enjoys a strong relationship with the United States. DR have always been very close related to USA at the same time always had kept USA at arms distance. USA tried to add the country as.
With the ruling's retroactive effect, it has the potential to impact thousands born in the Dominican Republic. The case involved Ms.
Juliana Dequis Pierre, a year-old Dominican-born woman and mother of four children whose Haitian migrant parents moved to the Dominican Republic decades ago. Dequis Pierre was registered at birth as a Dominican citizen, the Tribunal concluded she did not meet the criteria for the acquisition of Dominican nationality.
The ruling essentially applied the criteria for acquiring Dominican nationality outlined in the constitution as well as the General Law on Migration that was upheld by the Dominican Supreme Court in retroactively. As outlined in the State Department's Country Report on Human Rights Practices coveringthe constitution provides that anyone born in the country is considered a Dominican citizen, except children born to diplomats, parents who are "in transit," or parents who are in the country illegally.
The Tribunal ruling runs contrary to a judgment by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights on the issue of nationality in the Dominican Republic. The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights concluded that the Tribunal's ruling "implies an arbitrary deprivation of nationality" and "has a discriminatory effect, given that it primarily impacts Dominicans of Haitian descent.
The legislation, commonly referred to as the naturalization law, also provided an expedited path to citizenship for approximatelyindividuals born in the Dominican Republic to parents without legal status. This process required them to register for a foreigners' birth certificate by February 2,obtain migratory permits, and then be residents for an additional two years before being eligible for naturalization.
Some 8, people had applied for a birth certificate as of February 2, Dominican officials also maintain that those who did not get through the naturalization program can still obtain temporary residency followed by a path to citizenship through the regularization plan that runs through June 16, Dominican officials maintain that the process provides a path to citizenship and is open to those who did not make it through the naturalization plan.
State Department officials maintain that, as the IACHR ruled, the regularization plan provides temporary residency to Haitians living in the Dominican Republic and does not apply to Dominicans of Haitian descent. According to President Medina, more thanindividuals had applied to the program, 40, of whom met all of its requirements by February Haiti has only opened one center to help people obtain documents; that center reportedly has an extremely long wait time.
If the Dominican Republic rendered thousands of Dominicans of Haitian descent stateless and deported some of them to Haiti, the potential impact on Haiti could be significant. The Haitian government initially recalled its ambassador from the Dominican Republic in response to the Tribunal's ruling. Haitian and Dominican officials began convening regular bilateral talks to address migration and a range of other topics; the first round occurred in January The Dominican government said that it would not negotiate the Tribunal's decision or how it plans to implement it.
Haiti reportedly recognized Dominican sovereignty on migration policy, and the Dominican government assured Haiti that "concrete measures will be taken to safeguard the basic rights of people of Haitian descent" living in the country. The Haitian government reportedly reaffirmed its commitment to expedite the issuance of passports and national civil registration cards at border posts and in consulates in the Dominican Republic.
Although the talks have continued, Dominicans remain concerned about continued illegal immigration to their territory due to the current political instability in Haiti and the limited support the government of Haiti has given to the naturalization and regularization processes. The Dominican military has increased efforts to secure the Dominican-Haitian border and prevent new inflows of Haitian migrants.
In FebruaryHaiti's Ambassador to the Dominican Republic resigned after receiving harsh criticism for failing to help Haitians in that country access the regularization program.
The Haitian government remains concerned about the fate of its citizens living in the Dominican Republic. This concern, as well as anti-Dominican rallies in Haiti, increased after the violent deaths of two Haitians in February in two different Dominican cities. The elections scheduled for May will mark the first simultaneous presidential and legislative elections held in the country since Regardless, most observers are expecting the party to retain the presidency in With the PLD predicted to dominate the legislative elections as well, some are concerned about the long-term effects of one-party dominance on the quality of democracy in the country.
Economic expansion was also facilitated by the passage of market-friendly economic reforms in the late s. One critical reform was a law allowing the partial privatization of unprofitable state enterprises. Economic expansion did not translate into significant reductions in poverty, however, as inequality and unemployment remained high. Inthe Dominican economy, wracked by banking scandals, economic mismanagement, and an inability to compete with cheaper Asian apparel producers, contracted by 0.
The IMF's review of the three-year package lauded the government's ability to bounce back from the economic crisis and efforts to bring public spending under control.
U.S. Department of State
However, the IMF also urged the government to reduce energy subsidies and broaden the tax base in order to have a better fiscal position and revenue available for targeted social programs. High levels of foreign investment, strong performance in the mining and telecommunications sectors, and continued strength in tourism revenues have boosted growth. Despite its resilience and dynamism, the Dominican economy remains somewhat vulnerable to external shocks, which can cause declines in remittances, exports, or tourism inflows or increases in energy and food prices.
However, recent increases in revenue from consumption taxes and tariffs on mining exports have given the government more room to maneuver in the event of external shocks than in the past. Energy Challenges and Opportunities The Dominican government is seeking to reduce its reliance on foreign primarily Venezuelan oil imports, diversify the country's energy matrix, and address long-standing challenges in the electricity sector.
Although the Dominican government continues to benefit from PetroCaribe, it appears to be planning for an increasingly possible scenario in which subsidized funding may run out if Venezuela's economic troubles continue. More recently, the Dominican government has increased the percentage of energy it gets from natural gas; renewable sources; and, despite the associated environmental costs involved, coal.
The country currently imports LNG from Trinidad and Tobago, but the Dominican government is also interested in the potential of importing liquid natural gas LNG from the United States, some of which could potentially be transported in smaller quantities to neighboring Caribbean countries.
Inthe Dominican legislature passed legislation establishing a regulatory framework along with tax incentives to promote energy production from renewable sources; the importance of fostering alternative energies is now enshrined in the constitution. Since then, the country has received significant foreign investment for solar power, biomass, and wind energy projects; the country's first large-scale wind farm opened in Problems in the electricity sector have long constrained growth in the Dominican Republic, as electricity companies have struggled to provide adequate service to a populace angered by continued blackouts.
Nevertheless, the grid remains fragile, electricity losses are significant, and blackouts continue. In the nineteenth century, Haiti repeatedly invaded, plundered, and occupied the Dominican Republic. In addition, Dominicans tended to see Haiti as black, African, and uncivilized, in contrast to their own country, which they considered Hispanic and European.
When political troubles flared up in Haiti, Dominican governments usually mobilized the armed forces and put them on alert. Haitian political exiles often settled in Santo Domingo, which they used as a springboard for their partisan activities. Numerous Dominican governments had also tried to influence political events in Haiti. The border between the two countries had been closed on a number of occasions.
Our Relationship | U.S. Embassy in the Dominican Republic
Over the years, higher salaries and better living conditions had induced many Haitians to settle in the Dominican Republic. Dominicans would express resentment of this Haitianization, but at the same time they depended on Haitian labor. This was particularly true during the cane-cutting season, when thousands of Haitians were trucked in, kept in miserable labor camps, and then trucked back although some remained behind, melding into the local population.
The practice commonly gave rise to human rights abuses, and the term "slavery" was sometimes used when changes were raised in some international bodies. Little trade or commerce existed between the Dominican Republic and Haiti. Each eyed the other's politics warily and often tried to influence the outcome. Because of the complex racial, cultural, and social disparities between the two nations, it seemed doubtful that relations between the two countries would ever be friendly.
Dominican relations with the nearby island of Puerto Rico were quite good. A considerable amount of commercial trade, tourism, and investment activity took place between the two islands. Many Dominicans emigrated to Puerto Rico, where they generally enjoyed better jobs, salaries, and benefits. Puerto Rico's links to the United States through its commonwealth status also facilitated the migration of Dominicans to the United States mainland. Many Puerto Ricans had invested in the Dominican Republic or owned weekend cottages there.
Dominican Republic: Background and U.S. Relations - barcelonatraveller.info
At the same time, the large Dominican population in Puerto Rico was used by some as evidence to support the charge that Dominicans were taking jobs away from Puerto Ricans.
Despite a few minor points of contention, relations between the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico were generally stable and amiable. In contrast, the Dominicans had an uneasy, and still largely informal, relationship with Cuba.
The Dominican Republic had broken diplomatic relations with Cuba in ; on several subsequent occasions, Cuba sought to promote revolution in the Dominican Republic. With the growth of the Dominican economy in the s, however, the Dominican Republic surpassed Cuba in per capita gross domestic product GDPreversing the two nations' traditional relative positions. By the late s, the Dominicans dealt with Cuba from a position of strength rather than weakness, but they remained wary of Cuban military strength and the possibilities of Cuban subversion.
During the s, the contacts between Cuba and the Dominican Republic increased: Most of these contacts were informal, but some official contacts between government representatives of the two countries also took place.
For Cuba these exchanges formed part of its hemispheric-wide efforts to break out of the relative diplomatic and commercial isolation in which it existed after and to overcome the United States economic blockade. For the Dominican Republic, a flirtation with Cuba served to keep the domestic left from criticizing the government; it also put pressure on the United States, which in the s did not favor normalization of relations with Cuba.
One major impediment to closer ties was the competition of the two island nations in world sugar markets, a situation hardly calculated to encourage cooperation. By the Dominican Republic had become more closely involved in the larger political and economic developments of the circum-Caribbean.