Students need the doers, they need effective educators who are not only and passion and the know how to meet the individual needs of each student. At times mistakes are made and corrections must follow. Skiba, D., Barton, A., ( May 31, ) “Adapting Your Teaching to Accommodate the Net. teacher to work with inmates to help them reach their educational goals. range of resources for individuals with many different requirements including an . employees of the Corrections Department which makes it easier for. describe and discuss the elements of effective instruction beyond a good lesson. examine and evaluate how students are grouped in order to accommodate.
It also explains why it is often necessary to separate inmates in treatment in correctional institutions from the general inmate population. It is sometimes necessary to remove clients from a negative situation to give treatment a chance. Sometimes, a newer treatment group might be pressured to revert to the criminal code with antisocial values predominating over prosocial values.
These situations require careful confrontation, limit-setting, and clear expectations with consequences by treatment staff. Addressing Anger and Hostility Dealing with anger and hostility with criminal justice clients is much like dealing with anger and hostility with other clients. However, due to their higher incidence of antisocial personality disorder, criminal justice clients are more likely to use anger as a manipulative coping strategy and less likely to be able to separate anger from other feelings.
Clients may be angry for a variety of reasons, including Genuine feelings of being treated unfairly Limited affect recognition; confusing anger with other feelings Using anger to maintain adrenaline Goal-directed manipulative coping strategies such as deflecting attention from other issues or to keep others off-balance Often, problems with expressed anger relate to an inability to express other feelings—a problem with affect.
Interventions involve teaching criminal justice clients to recognize their affective states and to understand the difference between feelings and action. Many criminal justice clients especially men have limited understanding of and insight into what they are feeling at particular points in time. The counselor's goal, then, is to broaden affect emotions identification. Offenders who abuse substances also have a tendency to think that if they feel it, they must act on it.
Learning the relationships between behavior, thinking, and feeling, and how each affects the other, is helpful to many criminal justice clients.
Recommended Policy Changes - NCLD
Learning that feelings do not equal thinking or behavior can be a revelation for many offenders. Counselors should point out that feeling it doesn't make it so, nor does it mean the client has to act on the feeling.
Identifying the feeling s. Maybe other feelings are involved, such as embarrassment or guilt. Understanding clearly where the feeling is coming from. What is the real source of the anger? Identifying the goals the anger is serving e. Identifying the goals the anger is undermining e. Working toward taking the longer view e. Several additional strategies can help clients to recognize their feelings.
For example, counselors can set boundaries on how anger and hostility can be expressed and set limits as to reasonable duration of expression of anger and hostility.
Once the offender calms down, the counselor can refocus on what the client can learn from the situation and how the client can benefit in the future.
Counselors can also use peers in a group setting to explore how the client might use anger and hostility for secondary gain. For more information on anger management, see Reilly and Shopshire Addressing Identity Issues As offenders move through the criminal justice system, important elements in their identy can change.
In the pretrial stage, their identity as a member of a racial or cultural group, a family member, or employee may be most prominent. In jails there is generally a more immediate crisis, as one grapples with the shame and stigma of being labeled a criminal and the fear of facing extensive incarceration.
Criminal identity In prison, some people learn a new identity based on the prison culture in which they are involved; some prisoners learn to think of themselves as criminals. In part, this is a result of institutional pressures on them, and partly it is the result of interactions with other inmates who have accepted the persona of criminal.
For offenders who enter community supervision programs on release from prison, embedded criminal identities can pose a number of problems. Regardless of whether the offender is in jail, prison, or under community supervision, the identity of an offender often is an issue that needs to be confronted in treatment.
Those who have adopted a criminal identity need to learn new ways of thinking about themselves; those whose identity is shaken by the incarceration will need help coping with their criminal charges. An overall rehabilitation goal is to help offenders develop more prosocial identities consistent with positive social values. Cultural identity Race and cultural background can play an important role in the life of offenders, but the dynamics of race and culture are especially pronounced in jails and prisons.
In these settings, Caucasians often are in the minority for the first time in their lives. A number of subcultures are found within jails and prisons.Justice: What's The Right Thing To Do? Episode 02: "PUTTING A PRICE TAG ON LIFE"
Inmates who belong to minority groups may see correctional staff members including treatment staff as adversaries. Gangs represent the most significant of these subcultures, at least among male populations. Gang affiliation can influence with whom an offender is able to socialize.
Thus, treatment must take into account this aspect of the offender's identity. Family can represent a connection to the outside world and can be a source of stability for offenders as they move through the criminal justice system.
Moreover, the quality of the offender's relationship with his or her family can be an important factor in recovery. Slaght reported that the only independent variable related significantly to relapse at 3 months after release to the community was whether the offender was getting along with family members. Those who were getting along very well with family members were the least likely to use drugs.
Based on this, Slaght recommends more extensive efforts to involve family members in drug treatment. This can be especially true for parents. According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, in the majority of State and Federal prisoners reported having at least one child under the age of 18 Mumola For many of these offenders, drug or alcohol abuse was a factor in their incarceration.
For example, one in three mothers in State prison committed her crime to get money for drugs, and 65 percent reported drug use in the month prior to the offense. For both mothers and fathers, 25 percent met the diagnostic criteria for alcohol abuse Mumola In a survey of female inmates, Acoa and Austin found that nearly 20 percent of mothers were concerned that one or more children may have been exposed to substances in utero.
Confronting the guilt associated with their drug abuse can be important in treating parents involved in the criminal justice system. While this may be especially true for mothers, fathers also have strong feelings about their role as parents and express concern about their children.
Jeffries and colleagues reviewed several parenting programs for male offenders.
Descriptions of these programs are available online at www. Treatment that includes other family members can be of use. In some families, more than one family member is incarcerated; treating the family can address a generational cycle of incarceration.
Family treatment also can prepare inmates and their families for release. Since family problems can be a relapse trigger, Slaght recommends that offenders learn how to identify and cope with family conflicts. Substance abuse treatment programs also can use family involvement as a source of motivation. For example, extended parent-child visits can be used as a reward for good behavior. It is important to note that family involvement in recovery is not always positive. This results from a number of factors including reduced and controlled contact with family members and the tendency of families to shelter the inmate from problems on the outside.
The study also underscored the importance of being resourceful and showing perseverance, making decisions and taking action, and overcoming negative messages from peers and adults. All of these factors are directly linked to social-emotional skills in students with learning and attention issues and are evidence of the importance of developing these skills. Empower Students and Families Students with learning and attention issues are most successful when they are active and confident self-advocates with a strong support network.
Developing school and community-based programs that provide students and young adults with learning and attention issues more opportunities to develop these essential skills will contribute greatly to social and emotional well-being, academic success and career readiness.
Pre-K—12 education must prepare students with learning and attention issues to be successful in their education and career-ready. Prepare students for a successful transition to postsecondary education and employment. The transition from high school to postsecondary education or employment can be very challenging for students with learning and attention issues, as the supports and services they were entitled to under IDEA will not be provided automatically and might not be available.
Therefore, long before this transition occurs, our education system must ensure access to meaningful opportunities that will prepare students for success beyond school. The transition process must also ensure continuity of services and supports across the several programs that serve young adults.
Focus on social and emotional learning SEL. Strong social-emotional skills can be an asset to students with learning and attention issues as they navigate through school, employment and life. Many students with learning and attention issues also struggle with social, emotional and behavioral challenges, and it is important to address these alongside academic needs. However, unique implications for students with learning and attention issues arise in the context of social and emotional learning programs.
Educators must take the time to guide students with learning and attention issues—who may struggle with impulsivity or decision-making—through the process of self-reflection and help them build these critical skills. Key findings on self-advocacy and social-emotional learning Self-advocacy skills are essential for students with learning and attention issues because, in order to receive accommodations in college or the workforce, they will have to understand and explain their needs.
According to a NCLD survey of parents, half of the respondents said they had difficulty accessing information about disability services in college. Half also reported that they were unclear on what steps needed to be taken to receive accommodations and support services. Increase access and build capacity of institutions of higher education to meet student needs. Students with learning and attention issues are going to college more than ever.
But far too often, they fail to complete their programs of study. It is no longer enough to build a Pre-K—12 education system that meets their needs. Instead, it is critical to provide students with opportunities for success in higher education. This includes ensuring that institutions of higher education receive the information, training and resources they need to prepare their faculty to work with students with learning and attention issues and provide the necessary accommodations and supports.
Invest in research on outcomes after young adulthood.
Accommodating Instruction to Meet Individual Needs
When students with learning and attention issues leave high school, it can be difficult for researchers to collect information on their challenges or successes later in life. Many individuals who had IEPs in high school do not disclose their disabilities in college or in the workplace. A dedicated investment must be made to understanding the experiences of adults with learning and attention issues.
This should include identifying adults with learning and attention issues, understanding the challenges they face, discovering success among them, and prioritizing strategies that can positively impact more young adults with learning and attention issues before they enter the workforce. Cultivate Creative, Informed Educators General education teachers, special education teachers, school counselors, school psychologists, and other education professionals work together to support students.
But despite their desire to help, these educators are often unprepared to support the diverse learning needs of students. We must rethink how to prepare new educators, support those already in the classroom, and ensure that schools employ the range of professionals needed to support students with learning and attention issues. Create more supportive classrooms by rethinking educator preparation programs and professional development. Making changes to existing preparation programs and ongoing professional development for teachers and other educators who work with students with learning and attention issues will help drive effective instructional strategies, expand the use of accommodations, and foster better collaboration among educators and families to support students with learning and attention issues.
By including more opportunities for hands-on, clinical experience through residency programs or mentorships, teachers will enter the profession more prepared to identify the early warning signs of learning and attention issues and to effectively instruct these students. ESSA offers another opportunity to use policy to expand the expertise of educators.
ESSA provides states with funding that can be used to support both general and special educators as they increase their understanding of and skill in effective teaching strategies to support students with learning and attention issues.
Partner to erase discipline disparities. Data has revealed that students with disabilities are suspended and expelled at rates well above those of their peers without disabilities. Yet there are practices that work to reduce these disparities and foster safe, positive learning environments.
To address this issue, we must ensure that educators are fully involved as partners, are aware of the problem, and are provided with resources and professional development—particularly related to cultural competence—to implement successful strategies such as PBIS that will support the academic and behavioral needs of students with disabilities.
Expand research to prevent youth involvement in the justice system.
Accommodating Students with Physical Disabilities in Higher Education
Data shows that youth with disabilities are disproportionately involved in the criminal justice system. More research is needed to determine the prevalence of learning and attention issues including ADHD and executive functioning challenges among young people involved in the justice system—and the relationship between having these issues and becoming involved with the justice system.
Reliable research into this relationship and the scope of the problem will allow us to take steps—either through policy or practice—that will improve outcomes for students.
An increased investment into precipitating factors of justice involvement, common challenges with the justice system, and transition issues upon exiting the justice system are important next steps to addressing this complex and urgent issue. Drive Innovation for Effective Teaching and Learning Transform teaching by investing in research on the science of learning.
While there have been advances in understanding the differences in brain structure and function in children with learning and attention issues, there is much that remains unknown. Specifically, there is little research on the stigma that accompanies learning and attention issues and the impact that stigma has on the children and families facing these challenges.
With new and increased research and development into learning and attention issues, we can make research-informed teaching and learning the central focus of our educational system. Federal investments are needed in all four centers within the Institute of Education Sciences.
Increased investment in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development within the National Institutes of Health would allow more research focused on understanding the biological basis of learning disabilities and effective interventions, among other areas.