Crossing Over: Where Art and Science Meet by Stephen Jay Gould
Download and Read Free Online Crossing Over: Where Art and Science Meet Stephen Jay Gould. From reader reviews: Guadalupe Baxter: The book Crossing . art and science: the central role of iconic images. We argue that The idea of reconciling art and science is an enduring one. .. In summary, an important aspect of symbols, according to Eliade . Crossing over: where art and science meet. barcelonatraveller.info: Crossing Over: Where Art and Science Meet () by Stephen Jay Gould and a great selection of similar New, Used and.
In Gould was elected into the body of the National Academy of Sciences. Inthe American Humanist Association named him the Humanist of the Year for his lifetime of work. Inhe was posthumously awarded the Darwin-Wallace Medalalong with 12 other recipients. Untilthis medal had been awarded every 50 years by the Linnean Society of London. It is contrasted below to phyletic gradualisma more gradual, continuous model of evolution.
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Punctuated equilibrium Early in his career, Gould and his colleague Niles Eldredge developed the theory of punctuated equilibriumwhich describes the rate of speciation in the fossil record as occurring relatively rapidly, which then alternates to a longer period of evolutionary stability.
However Simpson describes the paleontological record as being characterized by predominantly gradual change which he termed horotelythough he also documented examples of slow bradytelyand rapid tachytely rates of evolution. Punctuated equilibrium and phyletic gradualism are not mutually exclusive, and examples of each have been documented in different lineages.
The debate between these two models is often misunderstood by non-scientists, and according to Richard Dawkins has been oversold by the media. Neoteny is the process where ontogeny is slowed down and the organism does not reach the end of its development. Terminal addition is the process by which an organism adds to its development by speeding and shortening earlier stages in the developmental process. Gould's influence in the field of evolutionary developmental biology continues to be seen today in areas such as the evolution of feathers.
Rather than direct adaptationshe considered many higher functions of the human brain to be the unintended side consequence of natural selection.
To describe such co-opted features, he coined the term exaptation with paleontologist Elisabeth Vrba. Wilson introduced his analysis of animal behavior including human behavior based on a sociobiological framework that suggested that many social behaviors have a strong evolutionary basis.Future World Where Art Meets Science Marina Bay Sands Singapore
This open letter criticized Wilson's notion of a "deterministic view of human society and human action. Here sociobiology has had and will continue to have success. And here I wish it well.
For it represents an extension of basic Darwinism to a realm where it should apply. With Richard Lewontin, Gould wrote an influential paper entitled, "The Spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian Paradigm",  which introduced the architectural term " spandrel " into evolutionary biology. In architecture, a spandrel is a triangular space which exists over the haunches of an arch.
When visiting Venice inGould noted that the spandrels of the San Marco cathedral, while quite beautiful, were not spaces planned by the architect. Rather the spaces arise as "necessary architectural byproducts of mounting a dome on rounded arches. Proposed examples include the "masculinized genitalia in female hyenasexaptive use of an umbilicus as a brooding chamber by snails, the shoulder hump of the giant Irish deerand several key features of human mentality.
Pangloss is portrayed as a clueless scholar who, despite the evidence, insists that "all is for the best in this best of all possible worlds". Gould and Lewontin asserted that it is Panglossian for evolutionary biologists to view all traits as atomized things that had been naturally selected for, and criticised biologists for not granting theoretical space to other causes, such as phyletic and developmental constraints.
The relative frequency of spandrels, so defined, versus adaptive features in nature, remains a controversial topic in evolutionary biology. Gould was criticized by philosopher Dan Dennett for using the term spandrel instead of pendentive,  a spandrel that curves across a right angle to support a dome.
Robert Mark, a professor of civil engineering at Princeton, offered his expertise in the pages of American Scientistnoting that these definitions are often misunderstood in architectural theory.
Mark concluded, "Gould and Lewontin's misapplication of the term spandrel for pendentive perhaps implies a wider latitude of design choice than they intended for their analogy. But Dennett's critique of the architectural basis of the analogy goes even further astray because he slights the technical rationale of the architectural elements in question.
Uncritical commentaries often portray evolution as a ladder of progressleading towards bigger, faster, and smarter organisms, the assumption being that evolution is somehow driving organisms to get more complex and ultimately more like humankind. Gould argued that evolution's drive was not towards complexitybut towards diversification.
Because life is constrained to begin with a simple starting point like bacteriaany diversity resulting from this start, by random walk, will have a skewed distribution and therefore be perceived to move in the direction of higher complexity.
But life, Gould argued, can also easily adapt towards simplification, as is often the case with parasites. By this definition, adaptive evolution is not just incidentally progressive, it is deeply, dyed-in-the-wool, indispensably progressive.
In the early s this led him into a debate with Derek Briggswho had begun to apply quantitative cladistic techniques to the Burgess Shale fossils, about the methods to be used in interpreting these fossils. Inexpensive but increasingly powerful personal computers made it possible to process large quantities of data about organisms and their characteristics.
Around the same time the development of effective polymerase chain reaction techniques made it possible to apply cladistic methods of analysis to biochemical and genetic features as well. Most of Gould's empirical research pertained to land snails.
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- Crossing Over Where Art and Science Meet
He focused his early work on the Bermudian genus Poecilozoniteswhile his later work concentrated on the West Indian genus Cerion. According to Gould "Cerion is the land snail of maximal diversity in form throughout the entire world.
There are described species of this single genus.
Name an angle vertical to angle EGA. So this is this angle right over here. And the way you think about vertical angles is, imagine two lines crossing. So imagine two lines crossing, just like this.
And they could literally be lines, and they're intersecting at a point. This is forming four angles, or you could imagine it's forming two sets of vertical angles.
So if this is the angle that you care about, it's a vertical angle, it's the one on the opposite side of the intersection. It's one of these angles that it is not adjacent to.
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So it would be this angle right over here. Actually, what we already highlighted in magenta right over here. So this is angle DGB. Which could also be called angle BGD. These are obviously both referring to this angle up here. Name an angle that forms a linear pair with the angle DFG. Photo by Kevin Jung-Hoo Park. Despite its tumultuous history, the relationship between arts and sciences has begun to experience its own kind of resurgence in recent years.
However, art and neuroscience would not meet until years after neuroscience was established as a field of study in its own right.
While its development involved fighting for government backing, funding, and legitimacy, neuroscience was arguably one of the more unapproachable new scientific fields. Joining neuroscience and art is a multifaceted and complex endeavour. Creativity in the Post-Google Generation Similarly, the contemporary art scene, especially in the last twenty years, has become generally more ambiguous and abstracted from narrative and illustrative representation.
Neuroscience and art, both making new waves of discovery and exploration in their respective fields, have become less accessible to the general public. It is from this issue that the Convergence initiative has built its foundations and curriculum: The future is where culture, knowledge and the value of art and science are acquired through interdisciplinary collaboration and dissemination.